Sabtu, 18 April 2009

Why are Japanese biscuits stored in a warm, dry place?

Why are Japanese biscuits stored in a warm, dry place

Japanese biscuits are mada from a meringue mixture to whitch ground almonds or roasted ground hazelnuts have been added. They are baked in a cool aven, allowed to cool ad are then trimmed with a plain, sharp-edged cutter so that they are all the same size. Alternatively they may be stenciled onto prepared baking sheets using specially made rubber stencil mats.

When baked and sooled, those not required for immediate use should be placed boxes and stored in warm dry place. By doing this the biscuits remain hard and quite dry. If the biscuits are allowed to remain in a damp or humid atmosphere they would go very soft and it would be imposible to handle them at the time of making up.

The dried biscuits are commonly sandwiched in pair with buttercream and then finished in a variety of ways. After they have been made up in tis way they soften owing to the uptake of moisture from the air to the cream. The highproportion of undissilved sugar makes the product hygroscopic and so liable to attract moisture. This often limits the shelf-life of such products.

Why are macaroons baked in a cool oven?

Why are macaroons baked in a cool oven

Most product containing high percentages of suga should be baked in cooler oven or they will burn rapidly. Sugar caramelizes at high temperatures and becomes hard. In the case of macaroons, the oven should be cool enough to allow the product to ‘grow’ by the expansion of the air cells beaten in to the paste and to flow out to the correct size before the albumen of the egg whites in coagulated. A hot oven would not only burn the products but would cause rapid coagulation of the albumen and prevent full growth taking place, so that the final product would be of small volume and poor shape.

Jumat, 30 Januari 2009

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Senin, 19 Januari 2009

We are having problems with softening of coffee meringues in whitch we use coffee powder as the flavouring. Is this the couse of the problem ?

Adding cpffee powder or coffee essence to the reciepe does not ussually couse meingues to soften provided they are baked thoroughly. Meringues are normally baked at about 116ºC (240ºF) for 3 h to ensure that are completelly dried out. It is advisable to the meringues in a dry atmosphere with the oven dampers left open.

The meringues should be cooled completely before paking and storeged in a warm dry atmosphere. If you do not have such storage conditions available they should be packed in aither moisture-impermeable bags or sealed containers. Merigues are very high in sugar and consenquently are hygroscopic. If left in humid atmosphere they will soon become sticky to touch and eventually will become soft. In wet weather where the atmosphere is more moist than usual the meringues should not be left exposed.

Kamis, 26 Juni 2008

From time to time we experience problems with the sheeting of our short paste; in particular it cracks or fails to remain cohesive. Why does this happ

Gluten formation in short pastry is not normally considered necessary. Traditional multistage methods of dough mixing were evolves to try minimize the potential for gluten formation required in the manufacture of pastry the paste units or sheets remain intact during the forming and sheeting processes otherwise crack may form on the surface of the pastry. In extreme case the crack may extend through the pastry sheet, cousing it to break into two separate pieces.

Too much gluten formation in short pastry commonly leads to problems associated with shrinkage during sheeting, blocking, forming and during baking. Getting the balance between too little–lack of cohesion–and too much–excessive shrinkage–requires careful control of recipe and mixing conditions.

As might be expected the level of water used in the recipe plays a major role in determining the rheological properties of the final paste (Cauvain and Young, 2000). Too little and the paste will not form a cohesive sheet, too mush and the on paste firmness: more fat inhibiting gluten formation and water promoting it.

Taylor (1984) studied the effect of mixing method for the manufacture of puff pastry and found that the mixing method used. Short pastes mixing on a high-speed mixing time tended to be more friable and prone to cracking because of the short mixing times employed. These findings confirm the need to develop a limited degree of gluten in the paste in order to minimize cracking of the sheets.

We suggest that you first investigate the effects of increasing mixing time. You may notice a small increase in paste temperature which can be readily compensated for by lowering the water temperature. If you still have the problem when you have optimized mixing time then we suggest you raising the added water level.

Jumat, 30 Mei 2008

When we cut open bread rolls and hamburger buns that have been stored in the deep freeze for a period of time we observe a white ring just inside the

The phenomenon that you have observed is commonly referred to as ‘freezer burn’ and arises from the movement of water within and from the product while still in the deep freeze. It was reported by Pence et al. (1958) who examined the whitened areas of products exhibiting the phenomenon and observed that they had a greater number of tiny voids associed with starch granules. These voids were linked with ice cristls that had sublimated from whitin the starch granules, causing a greater opacity of th crumb and the whitened appearance. The change in the crumb texture fro, this effect also couses the crumb to have a harsh, dry eating quality arising from the lower moisture content. However, the effect does not come exclusively from the loss of moisture since the attempts to restore the crumb properties are unsuccessful enless substaintial ‘re-wetting’ of the crumb is applied.

Even thoung the product has been stored in a deep freeze running at about –20ºC not all of the aqueus phase in the product is ‘frozen’. This aries because of freeze-concentration effects and presence of consentration of the remaining aqueous phase increades and its ‘freezing point’ becomes lower (Cauvain and Young, 2000). Eventually the consentration may become so low that the solution will not freeze even at –20ºC.

Any increase in the product temperature during storage will enable some of the ‘unfrozen’ water present to diffuse from the product into the surrounding atmosphere. This clearly happens with may frozen products since it is not product is held in the storage freezer then the greater is the accumulation of snow as the product progressively dehydrates.

After the product has warmed in the storage freezer any subsequent refreezing will take place very slowly from the surface inwards. This creates an interesting effect because the center of the surface begins to freeze quite quickly, while a few millimeters under the surface freezes slowly. The end resuld is the formation of the while areas of freezer burn which commonly reflect the outer shape of the product.

The problem can be ninimised by paying attention to a few simple ‘housekeeping’ rules:

  • Do not store the product for very long periods of time.

  • Check the actual storage temperature over a period of running time. The set temperature in the deep freeze is nominal and the thermostat will allow some degree of fluctuation around the set point.

  • Ensure that your storage freezer is regularly serviced and have the conditions of any automatic defrost cycles checked.

  • As much as possible avoid actions that allow the freezer temperature to rise excessively. For example, keep doors closed as much as possible and minimize loading and unloading times as much as possible.

What steps couls be taken to prevent round doughnuts shirking or collapsing within a few minutes of leaving the fryer?

What steps couls be taken to prevent round doughnuts shirking or collapsing within a few minutes of leaving the fryer?

The collapse of doughnuts after they the fryer is associated with the transition of the dough from a ‘foam’ to a ‘sponge’ (in the genetic not specific cakemaking sence). In foams the gas bubnles or cells are sparated from one another by a stabilizing film of one form of another, e.g. protein, fat, emulsifier, while in sponge the cells are interconnected and gases and liquids can readily pass though the matrix.

In the oven most baked products undergo the form foam to sponge and the gas contained withing the individual cells difuses out of the product into the surrounding atmosphere. The transition occurs at different parts of the dough piece at different times, depending on the head transfer rate. Before conversion the pressure inside the air bubbles is greater then that of the product. At the moment of conversion from foam to sponge there is equalization of gas pressure with that in the surrounding atmosphere and is seen as a slight shrinking of the volume of the baked product just before the end of baking.

Addition of some ingredients can delay the convertion of the foam to sponge to a leter time during the wheat starch and subsequeantly the temperature at which the foam to sponge conversion is made. In some formulations the transition may not take place within the center of the product before baking is compled. As a consequence the internal pressure. At some point the externl pressure on the product becomes greater than the internal pressure of the cells and the product shrinks. This is the collapse and wrinkling of the product that you see.

To avoid the problem you should reduce the sugar level in the formulation or reduce the ability of the dough to remain gas. It is well known that a mechanical shock delivered to many such products can be used to eliminate the problem, so simply banging the trays as you remove them from the fryer can reduce or even eliminate this problem.